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21/04/2009

La aliaga, arbustillo multiuso

ampliar La aliaga es un arbustillo pinchoso frecuente sobretodo en las solanas de las montañas mediterráneas. En abril suele empezar su floración que puede durar varios meses, durante los cuales salpica los paisajes de amarillo e impregna el aire de un olor exquisito, parecido al jazmín.

Son muchos los usos y beneficios de la aliaga, a cual más curioso. La flor y los brotes tiernos gustan especialmente a cabras y ovejas, estas últimas dispuestas a herirse el morro con tal de consumir las proteinas que contiene. Como las demás plantas leguminosas (judías, garbanzos,...), en sus raices se instalan bacterias capaces de captar el nitrógeno atmosférico en pequeños nódulos y liberarlo al suelo, enriqueciéndolo para ser aprovechado por otras plantas.

Es perfecta para prender una hoguera, así que donde esté la aliaga seca que se quite el "pat pastillas". Hasta hace poco con ella se construían los "hormigueros", montones de aliagas secas cubiertas con tierra o tasca (hierba con raiz y tierra) que se quemaban sin llama durante días. El resultado era una tierra abonada y suelta ideal para instalar cultivos.

En la actualidad la falta de pastoreo a propiciado el crecimiento desmesurado de aliagas que, tras años de vida, acaban secándose y favoreciendo los incendios forestales. Una parte de la solución ante tal amenaza, sería fomentar el pastoreo extensivo y los usos tradicionales.
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